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ABOUT 

TOBACCO 

AND 

ITS  DELETERIOUS  EFFECTS 


BY  THE  SAME  AUTHOR: 

HivSTORY  OF  The  Ohio  Country  Between  the 
Years  1783  and  1815;  IncIvUding  MiIvITary  Oper- 
ations THAT  Twice  Saved  to  The  United  States 
THE  Country  West  of  the  Ai^i^egheny  Moun- 
tains After  the  Revoi^utionary  War.    8vo. 

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History  of  Frances  Slocum;  For  Sixty-nine 
Years  Captive  With  Dei^aware  and  Miami 
Aborigines  During  Their  most  Savage  History. 
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1882;  Vol.  II,  559  pages,  Additional  to  Vol.  I,  Pub. 
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THE  Savage  Aborigines  in  the  Ohio  Country. 
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Address  THE  SEOCUM  PUBLISHING  CO., 
Toledo,  Ohio. 


ABOUT 

TOBACCO 

AND 

ITS  DELETERIOUS  EFFECTS 

A  BOOK  FOR  EVERYBODY,  BOTH 
USERS  AND  NON-USERS 

B  Y 


CHARLES  ELIHU  SLOCUM,  M.  D.,  PH.  D.,  LL.  D. 

(CoL'UMBiA  University,  and  University  of  Pennsylvania) 
Member  of  Local,  Ohio  State,  and  The  Amer- 
ican Medical  Associations 


There   is    neither   tobacco    nor   alcoholic    beverage    in 

the  science  of  good  health  or  the  conditions 

for  true  manhood 


1909 
THE  SLOCUM  PUBLISHING  COMPANY 

TOLEDO,    OHIO 


OF   THE 

UNIVERSITY 

OF 


?; 


f^^ 


QlY^2cf(XJzL^^ 


TO  LIVE  PROPERLY  REQUIRES 

a  conscience  and  will  cultured 

to  duly  respect  the  health    of 

body  and  mind  of  self,  and  the 

rights  of  others. 


TO  THE 

FREE    MEN  AND    FREE  WOMEN 

OF  AMERICA 

This  Book 

Is  Respectfully  Dedicated 

In  Recognition  of  Their  Freedom 

From  the  Slavery  of  Narcotics 

And  the  Exemplariness  thereby  Exhibited 


206902 


^  THE  CRAVING  FOR  TOBACCO,  OR  ANY 
OTHER  NARCOTIC 

is  but  a  perversion  of  ph3'siolo^ic,  healthful 
appetite  which,  if  gratified,  soon  leads  to 
perversion  and  destruction  of  the  victim's 
will,  or  the  facult}'  of  conscious  or  deliberate 
action  to  quit  what  appeals  to  ever}^  clean, 
well-informed  mind  as  an  unclean  and  most 
sinful  habit  against  self,  and  against  the 
human  race. 


wrr     I  nc 


UNIVERSITY 

OF 


PREFACE 


The  writer,  a  physician  of  over  forty  years 
practical  experience,  like  all  physicians  of 
ample  patronage,  has  seen  very  largely  of 
the  baneful  effects  of  tobacco,  as  enumer- 
ated on  succeeding  pages.  He  is  impelled 
by  a  sense  of  duty  to  put  forth  this  book  in 
hope  to  awaken  the  conscience  and  sense  of 
propriety  of  users  of  tobacco,  and  to  warn 
all  non-users,  including  the  young,  against 
beginning  its  use. 

It  is  hoped  that  the  reader  may  herein  be 
shown,  forcefully,  that  the  use  of  tobacco  is 
one  of  the  most  unnatural,  useless,  and  worst 
of  habits,  from  the  continued  efforts  and 
sickness  necessary  to  form  the  habit,  from 
its  impairment  of  body  and  mind,  its  en- 
slavement of  the  will,  its  disgusting  en- 
croachments on  the  pure  air  and  other  rights 
of  those  not  addicted  to  it,  and  its  further 
sinfulness  in  its  entailment  of  degeneracy. 

From  the  writer's  observations  among  his 
patrons  a  large  book  could  be  written ;  but 
it  appears  to  him  preferable  to  bring  togeth- 
er in  small  compass,  for  the  general  reader, 
succinct  statements  of  many  medical  men, 
prominent  in  the  different  lines  of  profes- 
sional activity  in  different  countries,  rather 
than  let  the  evidence,  herein  given  against 
the  use  of  tobacco,  rest  on  individual  testi- 
mony. 


When  a  young  man,  the  writer,  hke  so 
many  others,  'learned  to  use  tobacco'  and 
continued  its  use  for  several  years  in  what  is 
called  moderation  by  the  average  user.  Be- 
fore entering  upon  the  study  of  medicine, 
however,  the  ill  effects  of  the  weed  became 
so  apparent  to  him  that  he  threw  into  the 
falls  of  Niagara  nearly  all  of  the  last  cigar 
he  lighted,  the  holder  with  it.  Fortunately 
he  had  enough  of  moral  courage  and  strength 
of  will  left  to  overcome  the  habit's  craving 
for  continuance;  and  he  has  since  been  en- 
tirely free  from  tobacco.  During  all  of  these 
forty-five  years  of  freedom,  he  has  not  ceased 
to  be  thankful  for  his  deliverance  from 
one  of  the  most  unnatural,  enslaving,  and 
degenerating  of  habits. 

The  writer  has  thus  had  ample  personal 
experience  with  tobacco  and,  having  for 
many  years  had  in  mind  the  publication  of 
evidence  against  its  use,  his  observations  of 
its  ill  effects  have  probably  been  closer  on 
this  account.  He  fully  accords  with  the 
strong  indictment  against  the  habit  shown 
on  the  succeeding  pages  of  this  book. 

Charles  Elihu  Slocum. 

Toledo,  Ohio,  December,  1909. 


CONTENTS 

I 

The  Discovery  of  Tobacco  and  of  its 
Habitual  Uses           .... 

PAGE 
13 

II 

Tobacco's   Place    in    the    Vegetable 
Kingdom 

16 

Ill 

The    Component    Parts   of   Tobacco 

21 

IV 

The  Poisonous  Action  of  Tobacco 

24 

V 

The    Pathologic    (Diseasing)  Effects 
of  Tobacco 

30 

VI 

Further  Mention  of  Diseases  Caused 
by  Tobacco      

35 

Vii 

1 

Tobacco    Impairs    the    Functions    of 

Both  Body  and  Mind       ...         43 

VIII 

Tobacco  Begets  Indolence,  and  In- 
difference to  Propriety,  and  to 
Well-Being       .....         49 

IX 

Tobacco  Causes  Organic  Degenera- 
tions, and  the  Transmission  of  De- 
generacy   55 


Contents — Continricd 
X 

Questions  Answered.  The  Corrupters. 
Reformers  Wanted  For  Their  Sup- 
pression .....         62 


IT  IS  THE  INHERENT  RIGHT  OF 
CHILDREN  to  be  born  healthful;  and  to  be 
led  and  guided,  and  held,  only  along  the 
paths  of  purity  of  body  and  mind,  to  the 
strenghtening  of  the  judgment,  and  the  will, 
for  their  freedom  of  thought  and  action 
along  the  lines  of  the  pure,  and  the  right, 
in  all  things. 


13 


I 

The  Discovery  of  Tobacco   and  of   Its 
Habitual  Uses. 

The  use  of  tobacco  began  with  the  Abor- 
iginal people  of  the  more  central  part  of 
America  in  prehistoric  time,  so  far  as  de- 
finitely known.* 

The  discovery  of  the  use  of  tobacco  by 
Europeans  in  November,  A.  D.,  1492,  led  to 
their  first  discovery  of  the  plant.     Christo- 

*The  writer  is  aware  that  Mayer,  in  his  Geogra- 
phy of  Plants,  states  that  the  smoking  of  tobacco 
began  with  the  Chinese  people  in  ancient  times;  and 
that  he  observed  on  very  old  sculptures  in  China  the 
representation  of  the  same  form  of  pipe  that  is  yet 
in  use  there.  In  archeologic  sense  there  is  nothing 
definite  about  Mayen's  statements,  however,  as  many 
very  old  products  of  man  according  to  some  writers, 
do  not  antedate  one  century  even. 

The  valuable  scientific  results  of  the  Morris  K. 
Jesup  Exploring  Expedition  through  northwestern 
America  and  northeastern  Asia  in  recent  years,  make 
it  appear  very  probable  to  many  well  informed  peo- 
ple, that  even  the  Chinese  people  are  descendants 
of  the  American  Aborigines,  improperly  called 
Indians.  If  such  be  the  case,  the  migrating  Chinese 
ancestors  carried  with  them  from  America  the  great 
vice  of  tobacco  using.  ^ 


14 


pher  Columbus  sent  out  a  company  for  ex- 
ploration from  the  caravels  (small  ships)  of 
his  first  expedition  in  the  discovery  of  Amer- 
ica when  anchored  off  the  island  the  land 
of  which  was  the  first  he  discovered  and  on 
which  he  first  landed  and  named  San  Sal- 
vador, now  of  the  Bahama  group.  This 
exploring  company  reported  to  Columbus, 
among  other  things,  that  they  saw  people 
with  fire  brands  lighting  a  dried  herb,  with 
the  smoke  of  which  they  perfumed  them- 
selves. 

This  habit  of  smoking  by  these  Aborigines 
was  first  formed  by  their  unavoidable  inha- 
lation of  the  smoke  of  naturally  matured  and 
dried  wild  tobacco  plants  in  the  tropics,  as 
with  other  vegetation,  in  the  spread  of  forest 
fires;  it  being  noticed  that  the  smoke  from 
this  particular  class  of  plants  produced  results 
that  demanded  its  continuance,  that  is, 
fixed  an  uncontrollable  habit  upon  them. 

The  habit  of  snufBng  finely  powered  dry 
leaves  of  tobacco  up  the  nostrils,  was  the  re- 
sult of  gathering  and  preparing  the  naturally 
dried  leaves  for  smoking  use;  the  dust  from 
crushing  the  leaves  being  satisfying  to  the 
desire  for  smoking.  This  habit  of  snuffing 
was  first  observed  and  described  by  Ramon 
Pane,  a  Franciscan,  who  accompanied  Co- 
lumbus on  his  second  voyage  to  America, 
A.  D.  1 494- 1 496. 


15 

The  chewing  of  tobacco  naturally  followed 
the  habit  of  smoking,  particularly  when  fire 
for  smoking  could  not  readily  be  obtained 
in  wet  seasons  by  the  crude  pocesses  of  fire- 
producing  known  to  the  Aboriginal  and  early 
peoples.  This  mode  of  using  tobacco  was 
first  observed,  and  described,  by  Spaniards 
on  the  coast  of  South  America  in  the  year 
1502. 

The  name  tobacco  was  first  observed  used 
by  the  people  on  the  island  first  called  by 
the  Spaniards  Hispaniola,  now  known  as 
Santo  Domingo,  and  Haiti.  The  word  to- 
bacco, as  here  heard,  was  recorded  by  Orviedo 
in  his  History  of  the  West  Indies,  A.  D. 
1535,  as  applying  to  the  pipe  formed  of 
hollow  twigs  in  the  form  of  the  letter  Y, 
the  upper  parts  to  be  inserted  into  the  nos- 
trils to  draw  into  these  cavities  the  smoke 
from  dry  tobacco  through  the  larger  part  be- 
low. Benzoni,  however,  in  his  Travels  in 
America,  1542-15 56,  published  in  1565,  found 
in  Mexico  the  name  *tabacco'  applied  to  the 
dry  leaves  of  the  plant. 


i6 


II 

Tobacco's  Place  in  the  Vegetable  King- 
dom. 

There  is  infinite  variety  in  all  of  Nature's' 
works,  and  particularly  where  there  is  life. 
This  is  seen  in  all  classifications.  Every 
family,  in  both  Vegetable  and  Animal  King- 
doms, shows  certain  very  strong  contrasts. 

In  no  classification  is  this  fact  seen  in 
greater  extremes,  for  both  good  and  evil  to 
mankind,  than  in  the  Solanaceae  or  Potato 
Family. 

The  Potato,  tuber  of  our  tables,  with  gen- 
eral and  specific  names  Solaitmn  tuberosum, 
belongs  to  this  Solanaceae  Family.  It  is 
well  styled  the  King  of  Vegetables,  and  is 
one  of  the  great  gifts  of  America  to  all  other 
parts  of  the  earth. 

On  the  other  hand  the  Tobacco  plant,  be- 
longing to  the  same  family  with  generic 
name  Nicotiana  and  specific  names  given  on 
later  pages,  contains  the  most  active  poison 
known,  which  poison  when  continually  taken 
into  the  system  in  minute  quantities  enslaves 
the  users,  and  makes  the  use  of  tobacco  a  vice 


17 

equalled  in  its  baneful  effects  only  by  the 
use  of  alcoholic  beverages.* 

The  number  of  species  of  Tobacco  plants, 
genus  Nicotiana,^  growing  in  different  cli- 
mates and  described  by  botanists,  is  about 
fifty;  but  few  of  them  however,  are  culti- 
vated for  smoking,  chewing  or  snuffing  uses. 

The  tobacco  most  used  in  historic  times 
by  the  Aborigines  of  the  northern  States 
east  of  the  Missouri  River,  and  sometimes 
cultivated  by  their  women,  is  the  hardy  plant 
bearing  the  name  Nicotiana  rustica  L. 
Some  plants  of  this  specie  are  yet  occasion- 
ally seen  growing  wild  in  fields  and  waste 


*In  the  Potato  Family,  theSolanaceae,  also  belong, 
in  different  genera,  the  Ground  Cherries,  Night- 
shades, Horse  Nettle,  Cherry  Tomato,  the  common 
edible  Tomato,  Henbane  or  Hyoscyamus,  the  Da- 
turas including  the  Jamestown  Weed  usually  called 
Jimson  Weed  with  specific  name  Stramonium; 
and  the  Petunias.  There  are  in  this  family  of  plants 
twelve  genera  and  somewhat  over  forty  species  grow- 
ing, mostly  in  wild  state,  in  the  northern  United 
States  and  Canada,  most  of  them  being  noxious 
weeds,  and  several  of  them  poisonous. 

f Named  from  Jean  Nicot  French  ambassador  to 
Portugal,  where  he  was  presented  with  seeds  of  a 
tobacco  plant  which  he  caused  to  be  planted  in 
France  about  the  year  1560.  Later,  he  'rendered 
service'  in  spreading  knowledge  of  the  herb,  and 
botanists  united  in  the  use  of  his  name,  latinized,  for 
the  genus;  and  chemists  used  his  name  for  the  most 
poisonous  ingredient. 


i8 


places  from  Ontario  to  Minnesota,  and  south- 
ward to  Florida.  Its  hight  varies  from  two 
to  five  feet.  Leaves  are  broadly  ovate,  thin, 
entire,  slender-petioled,  two  to  eight  inches 
long,  one  to  six  inches  wide;  petioles  one- 
half  inch  to  five-and-a-half  inches  long; 
flowers  greenish-yellow,  about  one  inch  long, 
panicled.  The  leaves  of  this  specie  remain 
greenish  when  dry;  it  flowers  from  June  to 
September.  This  specie  was  the  first  one 
cultivated  in  England  and  most  other  parts 
of  the  eastern  continents;  and  it  was  often 
given  the  name  of  the  country  where  culti- 
vated, viz:  English  Tobacco,  Syrian  Tobac- 
co, etc.  It  is  at  present  not  so  much  culti- 
vated in  the  United  States  as  formerly. 

Other  species  recorded  as  cultivated  or 
used  by  the  American  Aborigines,  are:  Ni- 
cotiana  qtiadrivaivis  along  the  Missouri 
River  and  westward;  N,  multivalvis  along 
the  Columbia  River;  and  N.  nanis  among 
the  Rocky  Mountains. 

The  specie  N.  longifloraQ.2M.,  Long-flow- 
ered Tobacco,  is  native  of  South  America, 
and  has  been  cultivated  thence  northward  to 
Ohio.  It  may  sometimes  be  seen  growing 
wild  near  the  places  where  at  present,  or 
formerly,  cultivated. 

The  specie  generally  cultivated  in  Vir- 
ginia, formerly  at  least,  is  Nicotiana  taba- 
ctun.     It  was  this  specie  that  the  older  phy- 


19 

sicians  formerly  exploited  as  a  'medicine' 
with  very  serious  results.  In  good  soil  the 
plant  attains  a  hight  of  five  to  six  feet;  has 
lanceolate  sessile  leaves  six  to  eighteen  inches 
long;  flowers  rose-colored,  the  throat  of  the 
corolla  inflated,  the  segments  pointed. 

The  'best'  Havana  cigars,  it  is  supposed, 
are  made  of  the  leaves  of  Nicotiana  repanda 
grown  in  Cuba.  This  specie  contains  less 
of  the  more  active  parts  of  tobacco  than 
many  other  species. 

Nearly  every  one  of  the  more  prominent 
tobacco-growing  regions,  in  the  United  States 
particularly,  has  its  favorite  specie  of  the 
plant,  from  seed  generally,  imported  from 
Cuba  or  other  distant  place;  and  the  tobacco 
produced  is  often  given  the  name  of  the 
person  or  place  whence  obtained  or  where 
grown,  as  the  Havana  Seed-leaf,  the  Gadsden, 
etc.  The  Perique  is  from  Louisiana;  the 
White  Burley  brand  originated  in  Ohio. 

The  claim  is  made  in  later  years  that  Aus- 
tralia, New  Caledonia,  Persia  {^Nicotiana 
Persicd),  and  one  or  two  other' countries, 
have  indigenous  tobacco  herbs  or  small  trees, 
as  members  of  this  genus  often  attain  larger 
size  in  hot  climates.  But  seeds,  or  plants, 
for  their  propagation  may  have  been  carried 
there  several  centuries  ago,  even  by  pre- 
historic migrating  people,  and  the  claims 
of    the    earlier   writers    may    be    true    that 


20 


tobacco    plants    were    indigenous    only    in 
America. 

Different  soils  and  climates  produce  tobac- 
co of  different  strengths  and  flavors;  and  dif- 
ferent processes  of  culture,  of  drying  the 
leaves,  and  of  preparing  them  for  each  of 
the  ways  used,  produce  effects  desirable  to 
different  tastes  and  desires.  * 


*The  term  tobacco  has  been  applied  to  a  number 
of  other  herbs,  among  their  other  common  names, 
although  these  plants  possess  little  if  any  resem- 
blance to  tobacco  plants  in  proper  sense.  They  be- 
long to  different  families,  viz: 

1.  Wild,  or  Indian  Tobacco,  is  a  lobelia,  Lobelia 
infiata  (L.)  Richards.  It  has  been  used  as  an 
emetic,  and  is  not  so  prostrating  and  poisonous  as  to- 
bacco. It  belongs  to  the  Belleflower  Family,  the 
Cafnpanulaceae . 

2.  Ladies  Tobacco.  Other  common  names  are: 
White  Plaintain-leaf  Everlasting,  Mouse-ear  Ever- 
lasting, also  Pussy-toes.  Its  scientific  name  is  An- 
tennaria  plantaginifolia  (L.)  Richards,  of  the  Com- 
positae  or  Thistle  Family. 

3.  Mountain  Tobacco,  Arctic  Leopard's  bane,  Arc- 
tic Arnica.  The  Arnica  alpina  (L.)Olin,  of  the 
Thistle  Family  {Compo sitae.) 

4.  Oregon  Tobacco,  Tobacco-root,  Edible  Valer- 
ian. The  Valeriana  edulus  Nutt.  Of  the  Valerian- 
ceae  or  Valerian  Family. 

5.  Tobacco-weed,  Woolly  Elephant's-foot.  The 
Elephantopus  tomentosus  L.     Of  the  Thistle  Family. 


21 


III 

The  Component  Parts  of  Tobacco. 

The  French  chemist  Louis  Nicolas  Vau- 
quelin,  born  in  the  year  1763,  died  in  1829, 
was  the  first,  in  1809,  to  make  a  more  scien- 
tific analysis  of  a  tooacco  plant,  and  to  de- 
termine most  of  its  active  parts.  His  work 
was  followed  and  somewhat  elaborated  by 
chemist  Hermbstadt,  and  in  1828  by  Posselt 
and  Reimann  who  ascertained  the  alkaline 
nature  of  the  most  active  part  named  by  dif- 
ferent ones  nicotin,  nicotina,  and  nicotia, 
like  the  genus  name  of  the  plant  in  honor 
of  Jean  Nicot. 

Nicotin  is  an  alkaloid  with  chemic  formula 
C10H14N2,  it  possessing  the  largest  part  of 
nitrogen  of  all  the  many  component  parts  of 
tobacco.  It  is  colorless,  or  nearly  colorless 
fluid  when  fresh,  but  soon  assumes  an  amber 
color.  It  is  entirely  volatilizable,  inflam- 
mable, very  soluble  in  water,  alcohol,  ether, 
fixed  oils  and  turpentine.  Its  solvents  do 
not  destroy  or  appreciably  modify,  its  active 
poisonous  nature,  which  is  one  of  the  most 
active  poisons  known.  It  forms  crystalliza- 
ble  salts  with  many  acids.     In  tobacco  it  is 


22 


supposed  to  exist  in  combination  with  malic 
acid  as  a  malate. 

The  second  most  active  chemic  part  of 
tobacco  as  noted  by  some  analysts  has 
been  named  by  them  Nicotiana,  or  Tobacco 
Camphor.  It  was  separated  by  distillation 
of  the  leaves,  fresh  or  dry,  with  water.  It 
is  somewhat  fatty  in  consistency,  and  dries 
in  minute  acicular  crystals,  with  tobacco 
odor.  Much  of  the  poisonous  activity  of 
this  product,  however,* is  probably  due  to 
nicotin. 

The  leaves  are  the  strongest  part  of  the 
plant  and  contain,  in  addition  to  the  more 
active  poisonous  parts  named  in  the  fore- 
going paragraphs,  albuminous  substances  and 
from  sixteen  to  twenty-seven  per  centum  of 
inorganic  substances  in  form  of  different 
combinations  not  definitely  differentiated 
into  all  of  their  natural  forms.  The  great 
number,  and  strength,  of  the  constituents  of 
tobacco  plants,  account  for  the  great  ex- 
hausting effects  of  tobacco  crops  on  soils. 
Poor  soil  cannot  produce  'good'  tobacco. 

The  smoke  of  burning  tobacco,  as  drawn 
into  mouths  and  throats  of  'smokers'  has 
been  carefully  gathered  by  different  appara- 
tuses made  for  the  purpose,  in  addition  to 
the  different  forms  of  pipes  in  more  or  less 
general  use;  and  the  smoke,  with  and  with- 
out its  accumulations  along  the  tubes,  has 


23 

been  analyzed.  These  analyses  have  varied 
as  much  as,  probably  more  than,  those  of  the 
plant  itself,  principally  from  the  dej?ree  of 
skill  of  the  analyzers.  A  few  do  not  note 
Nicotin  in  the  smoke  as  they  collected  it, 
while  others  have  discerned  it  distinctly  in 
different  combinations. 

All  capable  observers  agree  in  the  complex- 
ity of  the  empyreumatic,  resinous  deposits 
in  pipes  and  apparatuses  with  which  the 
smoking  iS  done;  that  it  is  exceedingly  poi- 
sonous, and  that  more  or  less  of  every  part 
of  it  is  taken  into  the  system  in  smoking  as  in 
other  modes  of  use  of  tobacco. 

Vohl  and  Eulenberg  (see  The  Dispensa- 
tory of  the  United  States  of  America  by 
Doctors  Wood,  Bache,  Remington,  and 
Sadtler,  15th  edition)  noted  the  following 
named  gases  in  tobacco  smoke,  viz:  carbon 
monoxid,  CO;  carbon  dioxid,  CO2;  and  a 
hydrocarbon  with  composition  of  marsh  gas, 
CH4;  hydrogen  cyanid,  HCy,  or  prussic  acid; 
hydrogen  sulfid,  HS;  different  ammonias; 
and  an  oily-like  substance  as  it  condensed 
along  the  pipe  or  tubes,  which  has  been  an- 
alyzed as  containing  pyridin,  C5H5N;  pico- 
lin,  CgHtN;  lutidin,  C7H9N;  collidin,  CsHnN; 
parvolin,  C9H13N;  coridin,  C10H15N;  rubi- 
din,  C11H17N;  and  viridin,  C12H19N. 

Pyridin  was  found  to  be  most  abundant  in 
smoke   from   tobacco   in  pipe,   and  picolin, 


24 


lutidin,  and  collidin  in  smoke  from  cigar. — 
Doctor  B.  W.  Richardson  in  his  book  on 
Diseases  of  Modern  Life. 


IV 

The  Poisonous  Action  of  Tobacco. 

Tobacco  has  no  health-giving  or  health- 
aiding  action  on  animal  life.  Its  effects  are 
wholly  disease-producing,  in  double  and  most 
pernicious  senses.  Many  capable  and  con- 
scientious physicians  of  all  countries  for 
generations,  and  in  far  increasing  number 
and  ability,  have  been  careful  observers  of  its 
evil  effects  in  the  systems  of  their  patients, 
and  friends.  A  summary  of  its  effects  when 
first,  and  however,  used,  are  here  given 
together  with  the  names  of  a  few  of  the  ob- 
servers, and  of  the  publications  wherein  re- 
corded, viz: 

The  first  taste  of  tobacco  is  acrid  and, 
with  very  small  quantity  of  the  weed  or  of 
its  smoke  in  the  mouth,  there  is  immediately 
absorbed  into  the  blood  enough  of  its  active 
parts  to  produce  violent  poisoning  effects, 
however  active  the  glands  about  the  mouth 
to  throw  out  the  poison.     These  symptoms 


25 

are:  palpitation  of  the  heart,  faintness,  diz- 
ziness, nausea  and,  with  slight  increase  of 
quantity  taken,  vomiting,  tremor,  paralysis, 
and  quick  death,  frequently  in  convulsions 
caused  by  poisoning  of  the  spinal  cord,  the 
first  stage  of  tobacco  poisoning  being  spinal 
excitement. — Treatise  on  Therapeutics,  Ma- 
teria Me  die  a  and  Toxicology  by  Dr.  H.  C. 
Wood. 

Such  deaths  have  been  numerously  re- 
ported. But  few  of  them  will  be  here 
referred  to: 

A  boy  aged  thirteen  years  died  from  ci- 
garet-smoking. — Reported  by  Dr.  Broom- 
head  in  the  Medical  Chronicle  for  March, 
1889. 

The  medical  journal  the  Lancet,  London, 
England,  2nd  April,  1892,  reports  the  deaths 
of  one  hundred  boys  under  sixteen  years  of 
age  from  cigaret-smoking. 

A  girl  nine  years  old  was  acutely  poisoned 
to  death  in  Louisville,  Ky.,  Tobacco  Stem- 
mery  where  she  was  hired  to  work. — Dr. 
Chapman  in  the  Medical  Standard,  Chica- 
go, January,  1892. 

The  French  poet  M.  Santeuil  died  of  acute 
poisoning  by  Tobacco  Snuff  taken  in  a  jok- 
ing way. — Doctors  Woodman  and  Tidy's 
book  on  Forensic  Medicine  and  Toxicology, 
page  380.  This  authentic  book  reports  a 
number  of  other  deaths  from  tobacco  used  in 


26 


different  ways,  including  for  murder,  and  for 
suicide.  Taylor's  Manual  of  Medical  Juris- 
prudence also  contains  similar  reports,  as  do 
other  similar  books. 

From  the  faintness  and  loss  of  voluntary 
motion  'from  learning  to  use  tobacco'  some 
physicians  early  in  the  19th  century  tried 
poultices,  stupes,  lotions,  and  ointments, 
made  of  it,  on  the  skin;  and  decoctions,  so- 
lutions, etc.,  by  enema,  for  the  relief  of 
colic,  for  the  relaxation  of  the  muscles  in 
strangulated  hernia  (rupture)  and  some 
other  spasmodic  affections.  All  such  uses  of 
tobacco  showed  symptoms  of  poisoning  im- 
mediately. When  applied  externally  where 
it  could  be  removed  before  much  symptom  of 
poisoning  occurred,  or  in  case  of  enema  was 
expelled  from  the  body  sufficiently,  some  of 
the  patients  recovered  from  its  use;  but  the 
deaths  from  its  poison  were  relatively  so 
numerous  that  the  plant  was  banished  from 
the  Officinal  Medical  List  (Pharmacopeia)  of 
every  countr}^  See  Treatise  on  Therapeti- 
tics  by  Doctors  Trousseau,  Pidoux,  Paul,  and 
Lincoln,  1880,  Volume  II;  Dr.  Wood's  Trea- 
tise on  Therapeutics,  Materia  Medica,  and 
Toxicology ;  Dr.  Copeland's  Dictionary  of 
Practical  Medicine,  article  on  colic,  etc., 
and  Dr.  Husemann  in  Handbuch  der  Toxi- 
cologie,  Volume  II,  page  483. 

Doctor  Griscom's  book    on    The    Use    of 


27 

Tobacco^  quotes  Dr.  Tyrell  of  Ohio  who  was 
called  to  see  a  healthy  young  girl  with  sore 
on  upper  lip  from  burn  she  suffered  three 
weeks  before,  whose  mother,  hoping  to  heal 
the  sore,  had  placed  on  it  a  little  of  the 
sediment  from  the  bottom  of  her  tobacco- 
pipe — and  the  girl  died  in  convulsions  a  few 
hours  after  the  application. 

The  difficulty  of  separating  the  compo- 
nent partsof  this  empyreumatic  oleo-resinous 
sediment  from  tobacco  smoke  into  the  exact 
chemic  formula  and  combinations  therein 
existing,  makes  it  impossible  at  present  to 
determine  the  exact  effect  of  each  part;  and 
this  is  not  necessary  to  know.  In  the  com- 
bination as  found  in  the  smoke  inhaled,  the 
settlings  in  every  pipe,  mouth-end  of  cigars, 
also  accompanying  the  dark  coloring  of  the 
teeth  in  all  ways  of  tobacco  use,  the  numer- 
ous observations  in  man,  and  experiments  on 
lower  animals,  show  them  all  to  be  viru- 
lently poisonous  with  the  same  effects  as 
nicotin,  nicotiana,  nicotia,  or  the  entire  to- 
bacco leaf,  in  whatever  way  used. 

Physicians  prescribing  the  use  of  tobacco 
in  any  form,  set  up  complex  ailments  if  not 
specific  ones,  writes  Doctor  Dujardin-Beau- 
metz  in  his  book  on  Diseases  of  the  StomacJi 
and  Intestines,   Doctor  Hurd's  edition. 

Alcoholic  beverages  do  not  counteract,  or 
retard,  the  poisonous  effect  of  tobacco;   as 


28 


persons  intoxicated  with  whiskey  have  died 
from  'taking  a  little  too  much  of  it'  writes 
Doctor  Griscom  in  his  book  on  The  Use  of 
Tobacco.  People  have  been  poisoned  to 
death  by  taking  tobacco  into  the  stomach  in 
rum,  and  in  whisky. — Forensic  Medicine  and 
Toxicology  by  Doctors  Woodman  and  Tidy, 
page  381. 

The  effects  of  tobacco  are  the  same  on 
the  system  of  the  lower  animals  as  in  man- 
kind;* but  it  has  been  presumed  that  some 
of  the  herbivora  can  take  more  of  it  without 
fatal  effect  than  the  carnivora.  This  is 
probably  due  to  the  tolerance  begotten  from 
occasionally  browsing  the  tobacco  plant. 

*This  statement  may  call  to  the  mind  of  some 
reader  the  'tobacco  worm  and  beetle',  the  enemies 
of  the  plants,  as  possible  exceptions  to  the  rule. 
A  careful  study  of  the  biology,  and  biochemistry, 
of  growing  plants  will  show  innocuous  stages  in  poi- 
sonous plants,  as  well  as  stages  of  difficult  digestion 
in  some  edible  fruits  and  vegetables  in  their  unripe 
stages.  A  detail  scientific  study  of  the  changes  oc- 
curring in  seeds  in  their  germinating,  growing,  and 
ripening  stages,  gives  glimpses  of  the  marvelous  pro- 
cesses of  nature.  Pharmaceutical  chemistry  shows 
the  proper  time  for  gathering  any  one  or  more  parts 
of  a  plant  for  the  active  ingredient  or  part  wanted 
for  medicine.  The  professional  tobacco-grower,  and 
the  'manufacturer'  have  grown  'wise'  in  their  efforts 
to  produce  'desired  results'  in  their  products.  It  is, 
however,  at  times  difficult  to  preserve  any  vegetable 
or  animal  matter  from  the  destructive  influences  of 
saprophytic  fauna  and  flora. 


29 


Tobacco  is  injurious  to  digestion,  writes 
Dr.  Wilson  Fox  in  his  book  on  Diseases  of 
the  StomacJi,  3rd  edition. 

The  influence  of  tobacco,  however  used, 
extends  to  both  mucous  membrane  and  mus- 
cular layers  of  the  stomach,  and  produces 
great  irritation,  redness  and  injection  of 
vessels.  When  the  tobacco  is  stopped  these 
changes  somewhat  subside,  but  not  entirely. 
The  mucous  membrane  secretes  irregularly 
and,  as  a  general  rule,  does  not  produce  the 
due  amount  of  gastric  fluid;  hence  digestion 
is  impeded.  Afterwards  an  acrid  fluid  is  left 
in  the  stomach  which  irritates  and  give  rise 
to  heartburn,  eructations,  frequent  nausea 
with  an  almost  constant  sensation  of  debil- 
ity of  the  stomach.  Carried  to  somewhat 
further  excess  it  produces  a  palsied  condi- 
tion of  the  muscular  fibers,  leading  to  a  great 
increase  of  debilit}^  in  the  digestive  organs 
and  probably  death.  From  analogy  derived 
from  the  inferior  animals,  which  analogy 
must  be  very  perfect,  the  condition  of  the 
vital  organs  when  first  using  tobacco  are  as 
follows:  The  brain  is  pale  and  empty  of 
blood;  the  stomach  is  reddened  in  round 
spots,  so  raised  and  pile-like  that  they  re- 
semble patches  of  dark  Utrecht  velvet;  the 
blood  is  preternaturally  fluid;  the  lungs  are 
pale  as  the  lungs  of  a  calf  when  we  see  them 
suspended  in  the  shambles;  while  the  heart 


30 


overburdened  with  blood  and  have  little 
power  left  for  its  forcing  action,  is  scarcely 
contracting,  but  is  feebly  trembling  as  if, 
like  a  conscious  thing,  it  knew  equally  its 
responsibility  and  its  own  weakness.  It  is 
not  a  beating,  it  is  a  fluttering  heart. — 
See  Dr.  Richardson's  book  on  Induced 
Diseases  of  Modern  Life. 


V 

The  Pathologic  (Diseasing)  Effects  of 
Tobacco. 

The  action  of  tobacco  whenever  and  how- 
ever used  is  a  disease  affect  and  effect,  a 
general  call  to,  and  rallying  of,  all  the  pow- 
ers of  the  system  to  aid  in  preventing  se- 
rious harm,  and  in  eliminating  the  poison. 
This  process  of  protection  is  constantly  at 
work  in  the  system  of  every  user  of  the  poi- 
son, however  long  continued  or  deep  in  the 
vice  of  the  habit;  and  no  one  can  foretell 
when  the  system  may  succumb  to  the  dire- 
ful effects  of  the  habit. 

However  used,  the  active  parts  of  tobacco 
are  quickly  absorbed  into  the  blood,    and 


31 

however  small  the  quantity  absorbed  the  af- 
fects and  effects  are  baneful.  Every  func- 
tion of  the  system  is  quickly  affected  through 
the  blood  and  the  nerves. 

One  of  the  most  important  parts  of  the 
brain,  the  medulla  oblongata  connecting 
directly  with  the  spinal  cord,  receives  the 
brunt  of  tobacco  poison  and  transmits  its 
serious  effects  throughout  the  entire  system. 
Hereby  we  understand  its  effects  on  the 
nervous  system  in  general  and  the  great 
joint-nerve  of  the  lungs  and  stomach  (pneu- 
mogastric  nerve)  in  particular. — See  Dr. 
Huchard's  Ldcttwes,  first  printed  in  Le  Bul- 
letin Me  die  ale  22-26  May,  1889. 

But  this  is  not  all.  Much  is  due  to  its  ac- 
tion on  the  muscular  system  in  general,  and 
particularly  upon  the  vascular  walls.  Thus 
we  see  why  it  is  that  tobacco  is  such  a  strong 
poison  to  the  heart  throughout  its  vascular, 
nervous  and  muscular  systems,  and  to  every 
other  organ,  and  every  part  of  the  general 
system  also,  through  the  same  sources. 

The  spasmodic  (vasoconstrictive)  action 
of  tobacco  has  been  thoroughly  demonstra- 
ted. It  has  been  demonstrated  that  the 
effects  of  tobacco  resemble  absolutely  those 
produced  by  electrifying  (galvanization)  of 
the  great  sympathetic  nerve.  It  produces 
a  rigid  spasm  which,  secondarily,  constricts 
the  blood  vessels  and  deprives  the  muscles 


32 


of  proper  nourishment,  thus  producing  mus- 
cular ischaemia,  which  explains  in  part  the 
tremor,  muscular  weakness,  and  paralytic 
symptoms  (paresis)  observed  in  the  testings 
of  tobacco  on  the  lower  animals.  Such  vaso- 
constrictive action  produces  disturbances 
in  every  part  of  every  organ  in  the  body, 
and  disorders  proper  function  throughout. 
(In  this  connection  see  Dr.  M.  Allen  Starr's 
address  on  Vasomotor  Trophic  Neuroses  in 
The  Joui'nal  of  the  A  merican  Medical  A  sso- 
ciation  17  July,  1909). 

In  the  use  of  tobacco  the  nerve  centers 
exhibit  signs  of  improper  blood  supply  (is- 
chaemia), producing  brain-spinal  (cerebro- 
spinal) irritation,  headache,  nausea,  morn- 
ing fatigue,  impairment  of  memory,  mind 
(psychical)  irritation,  inaptitude  for  work, 
disability  of  speech  and  writing  (aphasia), 
symptoms  of  paralysis  of  one  side  (hemiple- 
gia) alternating  from  right  to  left,  etc. 

The  constricted,  oppressed  breathing 
(dyspnoea)  is  due  to  the  action  of  the  to- 
bacco on  the  medulla  oblongata  and  through 
its  systems  of  nerves  to  the  respiratory 
muscles,  and  including  the  muscular  layers  of 
the  pulmonary  circulatory  system. 

The  untoward  effect  of  tobacco  on  the 
kidneys  is  traced  to  this  hyperarterial  ten- 
sion, combined  with  the  general  irritation. 
Tobacco  is  thus  a  factor  in  Glycosuria  (dia- 


(   UNIVERSITY   ) 


33 

betes  mellitus).  See  Dr.  Love's  article  in 
The  Jour,  of  the  Am.  Med.  Assn.  Vol.  36, 
page  540. 

It  is  upon  the  heart  itself,  however,  that 
some  of  the  most  deplorable  effects  of  this 
vascular  lock-jaw  (tetanization)  are  pro- 
duced. Herein  arises  the  source  of  the  par- 
ox3'smal  pain  about  the  heart  (angina  pec- 
toris) with  suffocation,  syncope  and  often 
death,  due  to  the  spasm  and  changes  in  the 
coronary  arteries  and  consequent  poor  nour- 
ishment (ischaemia)  of  the  great  muscles  of 
the  heart.  The  hard,  small,  quick,  and  of- 
ten'irregular  tobacco  pulse  is  caused  by  this 
vasoconstrictive  action,  and  weakened 
heart. 

The  heart,  arteries,  and  gastro-intestinal 
system  suffer  great  rise  of  pressure  from 
the  undue  effect  of  tobacco  on  the  vasomo- 
tor center  of  the  medulla  oblongata,  thus 
weakening  the  heart  from  affection  of  the 
vagus  nerve  and  inhibitory  ganglia  of  the 
heart. — See  the  medical  journal  Pi^actitioner, 
London,  England,  July,  1905. 

Tobacco  affects  the  heart  by  paralyzing 
the  minute  vessels  which  form  the  batteries, 
so  to  speak,  of  the  pneumogastric  nerve 
which  furnishes  motive  power  for  lungs, 
heart,  and  digestive  apparatus.  Proof  of 
this  is  seen  in  the  congestive  cough,  and 
dyspeptic  symptoms  often  in  connetion  with 


34 


tobacco  heart.  Enlargement  of  the  heart 
is  apt  to  follow. — Dr.  Maine  in  the  Medical 
News  26  July,  1902.  Also  see  article  by  Dr. 
L.  P.  Clark  in  The  Medical  Record  New- 
York  City,  29  June,  1907. 

At  first  these  effects  are  functional;  and 
with  the  habitual  tobacco  user  there  is  con- 
stant functional  disturbance.  It  should  be 
evident,  therefore,  to  everyone  that  the  con- 
tinued use  of  tobacco  begets  an  increasing 
permanency  of  functional  effect  that  cannot 
but  beget  organic  disease.  Every  organ  of 
the  body  is  subject  to  a  variety  of  forms  of 
organic  disease  from  this  cause. 

The  effects  of  tobacco  are  cumulative, 
writes  Dr.  Mitchell  in  the  Lancet-Clinic  13 
June,  1908.  The  effects  of  tobacco  are  con- 
centrated on  either  the  respiratory,  the 
cardiac,  or  the  alimentary  system. — Dr 
White  in  the  Birmingham  Medical  Review^ 
1904. 

Continued  use  of  tobacco,  in  any  form, 
begets  permanent  narrowing  (contractures) 
of  the  blood  vessels,  and  a  sort  of  peripheral 
circulatory  barrier  accumulates.  Arterial 
tension  is  increased;  the  heart  suffers  from 
successive  dilatations,  which  in  turn  become 
permanent;  and  there  is  produced  a  general 
hardening  and  degeneration  of  the  coats  of 
the  arteries  (arterosclerosis)  making  sudden 


35 

death  from  heart  failure,  or  apoplexy  and 
paralysis  very  probable. 

With  the  smoker,  particularly,  the  mon- 
oxid  of  carbon,  CO,  in  the  smoke  produces 
drowsiness,  unsteady  movements  of  the 
heart,  tremulous  and  even  convulsive  move- 
ments of  muscles,  and  often  vomiting,  writes 
Dr.  Richardson  in  his  book  on  Diseases  of 
Moderfi  Life.  With  but  slight  increase  of 
this  virulent  poison,  death  is  caused. 

The  monoxid  of  carbon  in  tobacco  smoke 
affects  the  hemoglobin  of  the  blood,  con- 
verting the  oxyhemoglobin  into  carbonic 
oxid  (CO)  hemoglobin,  a  stable  compound 
not  reduced  in  the  circulation;  hence  pro- 
ducing difficulty  of  breathing,  and  quick 
death  if  the  poison  be  not  discontinued. — 
Dr.  Dudley  in  the  Medical  News,  i6  Sep- 
tember, 1888. 

Every  user  of  tobacco,  in  every  form  used, 
is  constantly  receiving  within  his  system 
numerous  warnings  by  nature  to  stop  its 
use,  viz:  irritation  of  the  lips,  mouth,  throat, 
airtubes  and  lungs,  in  addition  to  the  sick- 
ening symptoms  mentioned  in  the  foregoing 
paragraphs. 


36 


VI 


Further  Mention   of   Diseases   Caused 
BY  Tobacco. 

From  the  preceding  description  of  the  ef- 
fects of  tobacco  throughout  the  entire  sys- 
tem, it  can  readily  be  understood  how  it  is 
that  these  effects  can,  and  do,  originate  any 
one,  or  all,  of  the  organic  diseases,  and  in- 
cite to  increased  activity  all  of  those  diseases 
to  which  the  user  was  inclined  at  the  time 
of  his  beginning  the  use  of  the  poison. 
Here,  again,  but  few  of  the  great  number  of 
illustrative  cases,  with  references,  will  be 
adduced,  viz: 

From  an  examination  of  more  than  one 
thousand  men,  women  and  children,  work- 
ers in  tobacco  manufactories,  every  one  was 
found  poisoned  more  or  less,  and  suffering 
generally,  and  particularly  with  one  or  more 
of  the  following  named  diseases:  of  the  eyes, 
heart,  exaggeration  of  reflexes,  headache, 
fainting  fits,  etc. — Madame  Walitzkaja  in 
\he  Medical  Press,  1887. 

Tobacco  poisoning  by  the  air  of  tobacco 
works,  even  to  death,  has  been  reported  by 
different    physicians^     and    from    different 


37 

works,  including  Dr.  Chapman  in  the  St. 
Joseph,  Mo.,  Medical  Herald,  November, 
1891 ;  and  in  the  Medical  Standard,  Chicago, 
January,   1892. 

With  three  thousand  tobacco  workers  ex- 
amined for  eye  effects  by  Dr.  F.  DowHng  of 
Cincinnati,  he  found  a  large  percentage  af- 
fected by  blindness,  in  addition  to  lesser 
irritations,  from  disease  of  the  optic  nerve, 
retina,  spine  or  brain  (amaurosis,  and  am- 
blyopia).—  The  Medical  and  Surgical  Re- 
porter, Philadelphia,  22  October,  1892. 

Tobacco  amblyopia  is  the  most  common 
of  all  toxic  amblyopias. — Dr.  Dowling  in 
The  Lancet-Clinic,  13  June,  1908.  Blindness 
(amblyopia)  from  use  of  tobacco  is  reported 
by  Dr.  C.  A.  Wood  of  Chicago,  in  Annals 
of  Opthalmology  and  Otology,  Kansas  City, 
Mo.,  July,   1892. 

Blindness  (amaurosis)  was  found  in  horses 
that  had  eaten  the  weed  Nicotiana  siiaveo- 
lens,  the  'native' Australian  tobacco.  Abso- 
lute blindness  was  developed  in  the  horses 
that  had  eaten  of  the  weed  somewhat  from 
six  months  to  two  years.  Wasting  (atro- 
phy) of  the  spinal  cord  and  its  nerves  near 
the  medulla  oblongata  was  found  in  these 
horses  on  post  mortem  examination  by  Dr. 
Heusmann  of  Gottingen,  Prussia;  reported 
in  the  medical  book  Schmidf  s  Jarbiicher, 
•  Leipzig,  Saxony,  15  February,  1895. 


38 

Tobacco  amblyopia  (blindness)  at  first  a 
functional  disorder,  perhaps  a  circulatory  or 
nutritional  disturbance,  leads  to  organic 
change,  producing  atrophy  (wasting  and 
decline)  of  the  papillo-macular  fibers,  writes 
Dr.  Ramsey  of  Scotland  in  the  Glasgow 
Medical  Journal,   December,  1894. 

Some  observers  have  reported  that  in  to- 
bacco amblyopia  (blindness)  vision  did  not 
decline  below  20200ths;but  Dr.  Polkinhorn 
reported  in  the  Opthalmic  Record,  Chicago, 
July,  1900,  that  one-half  of  his  cases  were 
beyond  this  strong  degree  of  blindness.  One 
of  his  cases  was  a  wife  who  did  not  smoke, 
but  was  closely  confined  in  caring  for  a 
paralytic  husband  who  was  a  regular  smoker 
of  tobacco. 

Tobacco  causes  retro-bulbar  neuritis  (in- 
flammation of  the  optic  nerve,  and  blind- 
ness.— Dr.  A.  T.  Haight  in  the  Chicago 
Clinic  March,  1899. 

Tobacco  amblyopia  is  the  result  of  axial 
neuritis  (central  inflammation)  of  the  optic 
nerves. — Dr.  Bruns  in  the  New  Orleans  Med- 
ical and  Surgical  Journal,  12  August,  1888. 
See  also  reports  on  tobacco  blindness  by 
Dr.  Baker  in  Cleveland  Medical  Gazette^ 
June,  1888;  by  Dr.  Doyne  in  the  Royal  Lon- 
don Hospital  Reports  January,  1888;  and 
several  cases  of  tobacco  blindness  (tobacco 
amaurosis)  by  Dr.  Ay  res  in  The  Lancet- 
Clinic  21  January,  1888. 


39 

Tobacco  causes  atrophy  (wasting  in  size 
and  integrity)  of  the  optic  nerves  and  sub- 
sequent amaurosis  and  amblyopia. — Dr.  J. 
Solberg  Wells  in  his  large  book  on  Diseases 
of  the  Eye,  2nd  American  from  the  3rd  Eng- 
lish edition.  Tobacco  produces  amblyopia 
by  causing  degeneration  and  destruction  of 
the  ganglion-cells  of  the  macula  lutea,  the 
most  important  center  of  sight. — Dr.  De- 
Schweinitz  in  the  American  Joiwnal  of  the 
Medical  Sciences  September,  1897. 

All  smokers  of  tobacco  have  more  or  less 
serious  affections  of  the  eyes. — Dr.  B.  H. 
Brodnax  in  the  journal  L Encephale  Paris, 
October,  1892.  Use  of  tobacco  in  any  way 
has  injurious  effect  on  eyes,  and  other  organs. 

Tobacco  causes  deafness  by  irritating, 
producing  hyperaemia  and  thickening  of  the 
pharynx  and  eustachian  tubes,  writes  Dr. 
Wingrave  of  England  in  the  Medical  Press 
and  Circular  11  February,  1903.  Tobacco 
has  direct  action  on  the  auditory  nerve 
producing  trophoneurosis  and  deafness  by 
its  action  on  the  circulation  through  the 
sympathetic  nerve.  Like  other  toxic  neu- 
rites  it  is  progressive,  and  affects  both  ears 
simultaneously. — Dr.  Delie  in  the  journal 
Hebdomadaire  de  Laryngologie,  1905. 

In  his  book  on  Diseases  of  the  Throat  and 
Nose  Dr.  Bosworth  of  New  York  City  des- 
cribes bad  effects  of  tobacco  on  these  parts. 


40 


Doctor  Coomes,  of  Louisville,  Ky.,  in  a 
paper  read  before  the  Ninth  International 
Medical  Congress  describes  serious  results  of 
tobacco  on  the  respiratory  tubes;  see 
Transactions  of  this  Congress,  Volume  IV, 
pages  loi,  1 02. 

The  sense  of  smell  is  blunted,  oft^n 
destroyed  by  the  effects  of  tobacco  in  the 
nasal  and  post-nasal  fossae,  causing  atrophic 
rhinitis  and  pharyngitis. — Dr.  Parker  in  the 
Medical  News  Philadelphia,  20  September, 
1890. 

Epithelial  changes  are  produced  on  the 
lips,  in  the  mouth,  and  respiratory  passages 
by  tobacco,  causing  perversion  of  taste  and 
other  senses. — Dr.  Barbaran  in  Revue  Medi- 
cale  de  r Est^'d.wQ.y,  France,  15  September, 
1890.  See,  also,  the  British  Medical  J 02ir- 
nal,  London,  25  October,  1890.  Tobacco 
causes  sore  throat,  cancer  of  the  mouth, 
throat  and  lips. — Dr.  Merlin  of  Algeria  in  the 
Gazette  Me  die  ale  de  P  Alger  ie  1 5  August,  1 892. 

Doctor  Favarger  of  Vienna,  Austria,  in 
the  Wiener  Medizinische  Wochenschrift, 
1887,  also  Dr.  Gigliarella  of  Italy  in  the  Ita- 
lian medical  journal  Rivista  Clinica,  1887, 
report  cases  of  chronic  nicotinism  (tobacco- 
ism)  causing  disease  of  the  heart  with  pal- 
pitation, irregularity,  dyspnoea  ( 'heart  asth- 
ma'), angina  pectoris  (spasms  of  pain  with 
suffocation),  chronic  myocarditis  (fatt}^  de- 


41 

generation),  Gastralgia  (great  pain  in  sto- 
mach), great  disorder  of  bowel  from  inflam- 
mation of  some  parts  and  paralysis  of  other 
parts,  etc. 

Doctor  Anstie  reports  in  his  book  on 
Neuralgia  and  Similar  Diseases,  angina  pec- 
toris caused  by  tobacco. 

The  use  of  tobacco  not  only  lessens  the 
efficiency  of  respiratory  movements  and  the 
internal  distribution  of  oxygen,  but  exerts 
a  special  deleterious  influence  on  the  heart, 
often  disturbing  the  uniformity  of  its  rhythm 
and  impairing  its  force;  and  not  unfrequent- 
ly  causing  sudden  death  by  cardiac  paraly- 
sis.— Dr.  Brunton  in  his  Lectures  on  the 
Action  of  Medicine  pages  321-323. 

Doctor  Robert  of  Algeria,  Africa,  writes 
in  the  Gazette  Medicate  de  V Algerie  30  May, 
1889,  that  if  a  tobacco  user's  system  is  so 
fortunate  as 'to  apparently  tolerate  its  effects 
for  some  years,  the  heart  becomes  enfeebled, 
hardening  and  degeneration  of  the  arteries 
(arteriosclerosis;  develops,  making  sudden 
death  imminent.  Dr.  Dumas  of  Algeria,  in 
the  same  Gazette  10  November,  1887,  reports 
fatal  case  of  tobacco  angina  pectoris.  Such 
cases  are  not  curable,  says  Dr.  Huchard  in 
his  Lectures  in  Le  Bulletin  Medicate. 

Experiments  by  the  prevailing  methods 
demonstrate  that  the  gastric  fluids  are  de- 
minished,  and  digestion  impaired  by  the  use 


42 


of  tobacco. — Dr.  Ydan-Pouchkine  in  the 
medical  journal  Wratch  St.  Petersburg, 
Russia,  Number  48,  1890. 

Tobacco  is  responsible  for  a  variety  of 
functional  derangements  which  terminate 
in  organic  diseases.  Diseases  of  the  kidneys 
are  caused  thereby,  writes  Dr.  A.  G.  Auld  of 
Glasgow,  Scotland,  in  the  London  Lancet 
20  April,  1889.  Sugar  in  the  urine  (Diabetes 
Mellitus,  Glycosuria,  Glucosuria)  is  not  only 
aggravated  by  tobacco,  but  it  may  be  caused 
by  tobacco. — Dr.  H.  Stern  in  the  Medical 
Record  2^  April,  1901. 

Doctor  Kitchen  writes  in  the  Medical 
Record  27  April,  1889,  that  it  is  easy  to  see 
the  dire  effects  of  tobacco  in  the  stunted 
growths  of  adolescents  in  size,  and  other 
forms  of  development;  from  disorders  of 
functions,  including  the  heart,  intellectual 
sluggishness,  loss  of  memory,  color-blind- 
ness, loss  of  or  depraved  appetite,  neurosis 
of  motion,  marked  blunging  of  various  func- 
tions of  sensation,  hereditary  degeneracy, 
etc.  Twenty  per  cent,  more  money  is  ex- 
pended for  tobacco  in  America  than  for 
bread;  and  this  comparison  represents  but  a 
small  part  of  the  real  cost  of  the  use  of 
tobacco. 


43 


VII 


Tobacco  Impairs  the  Functions  of  Both 
Body   and   Mind, 

The  French  writer,  Andre  Thevet,  des- 
cribed the  serious  effect  of  tobacco  on  the 
sexual  system  in  the  year  1555. — The  journal 
Ame7'ican  Medicine  22i  h\)r\\,  1904.  See  also 
regarding  the  same  aifection  Dr.  Prodel's 
article  in  the  Gazette  Medicale  de  PAlgerie 
30  June,  1890;  Dr.  Decroix  in  the  medical 
journal  Times  and  Register  15  November, 
1890,  and  the  Weekly  Medical  Review  St. 
Louis,  28  March,  1891;  Dr.  Lewin  in  the 
Journal  of  Comparative  Neurology  Septem- 
ber, 1893;  E)r.  Le  Juge  de  Sagrais  of  Lu- 
chon,  France,  in  the  Archives  Generales  de 
Medicine  1902;  and  Dr.  Petit  in  the  medical 
journal  II  Policlinico  Rome,  Italy,  1904. 

Mental  disease  (Nicotinosis  Mentalis)  as- 
cribed to  the  increased  consumption  of  to- 
bacco, is  described  by  Dr.  Kjellberg  of 
Upsula,  Sweden,  in  the  Wiener  Medizin- 
ische  Presse,  Vienna,  Austria,  17  August, 
1890,  as  characterized  by  distressing  emo- 
tions of  indisposition  and  weakness,  halluci- 
nations, and  delusions  with  suicidal  intent. 


44 

Nicotinic  Psychosis  (tobacco  mental  dis- 
ease) among  marines,  and  workmen  in  fac- 
tories- at  Upsula  who  used  tobacco,  is 
described  by  the  same  writer  in  the  Weekly 
Medical  Review  of  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  29  August, 
1891,  as  manifesting  itself  by  feebleness,  in- 
activity, and  despondent  ideas.  Hallucin- 
ations follow  at  an  early  period,  accom- 
panied by  depressive  ideas  and,  later,  by 
exalted  and  maniacal  ideas  and  actions.  Dr. 
Lewin  mentions  similar  effects  of  tobacco 
in  the  Journal  of  Comparative  Neurology. 

Tobacco  intoxication,  from  external  ap- 
plication of  tobacco  infusion  for  the  destruc- 
tion of  lice,  is  reported  by  Dr.  Auche  in  the 
Journal  de  Medicine  de  Bordeaux,  France, 
22  March,  1891. 

Rabbits  slowly  poisoned  by  cabbage  leaves 
wet  with  solution  of  tobacco,  showed  in  post- 
mortem examination  progressive  hardening 
(sclerosis)  of  liver  with  proliferation  of  bile 
ducts.  Kidney  and  heart-muscle  changes 
were  also  found. ^Dr.  Adler  in  AmeiHcan 
Medicine  10  May,  1902. 

/  Tobacco,  as  poisonous  as  it  is,  is  not  a 
bacteriacide,  or  even  an  insecticide  in  the 
true  sense.  Used  against  lice  it  has  poisoned ' 
the  host  nearly  to  death  while  leaving  the 
parasite  unhurt.  As  a  fumigator  against 
germs,  even  the  smoke  of  smoldering  wood 
has  been  found  more  efficient  while  far  less 


45 

objectionable.— The  medical  journal  Lancet, 
London  4  May,  1907. 

Bacilli  Tuberculosis,  from  the  mouth  of 
the  cigar-maker,  have  been  found  alive  and 
ready  for  infection  in  the  mouth-end  of 
cigars  for  the  shaping  of  which  spittle  had 
been  used. 

The  Cigarmakers'  International  Union, 
which  has  had  an  average  membership  of 
less  than  40,ocx)  for  ten  years,  reported  in 
the  year  1909  that  during  the  last  twenty- 
seven  years  it  had  expended  close  upon 
$4,500,000.00  for  the  relief  of  the  sick  and 
disabled,  and  for  funeral  charges,  of  mem- 
bers of  the  Union. 

At  the  Tuberculosis  Congress  in  1908,  the 
statement  was  made  that  this  disease 
had  cost  Amereica  the  vast  sum  of  $1,100,- 
000,000.00  every  year.  Many  of  these  suf- 
ferers were  users  of  tobacco. 

The  use  of  tobacco  conduces  to  the  cause 
of  tuberculosis  and,  thereby  as  a  matter  of 
course,   detracts  from    the  cure  and  treat- " 
ment  of  this  disease.     See  the  medical  jour- 
nal The  Hospital 2^  November,  1908,  on  the 
report  of  the  Henry  Phipps  Institute. 
/  Tobacco  has  no  value  as  a  medicine.     It 
is  injurious  in  convalescence  from  disease,  y 
writes  Dr.  Coughlin  in  The  Jour,  of  the  Am. 
Med.  Assn.  23  August,    1902. 
/  Tobacco  is  injurious  to  the  sense  of  taste, 


46 

to  the  throat,  voice,  nervouse  system,  di- 
gestion, the  bones,  muscles,  respirator}-  sj's- 
tem,  heart,  senses  of  sight  and  hearing;  to 
mental  and  physical  development,  and  to 
one's  ability,  generally,  writes  Dr.  Blaisdell 
in  his  book  on  Life  and  Health,  1902.    / 

Tobacco  users  do  not  stand  surgical  oper- 
ations well;  the}-  are  liable  to  collapse, 
writes  Dr.  Bangs  in  the  Medical  Record, 
New  York  City,  14  March,  1908. 

A  comparative  study  of  the  users  and  non- 
users  of  tobacco  among  the  students  at  Yale 
University  in  respect  to  their  physical  de- 
velopment, showed  the  following  results  of 
one  class  in  four  years,  viz: 

Average  increase  in  lung  capacity  in  users, 
.15  litre;  in  non-users,  .25  litre,  or  an  in- 
crease of  66  per  cent,  greater  for  non-users. 
Inflated  chest  measurements,  in  users,  .304 
metre;  non-users,  .364  metre,  an  increase 
of  19  per  cent,  greater  in  non-users.  Height 
in  users,  .0169  metre;  non-users,  .0202  metre, 
an  increase  of  20  per  cent,  greater  for  non- 
users.  Weight,  in  users,  .4  kilogramme 
(i  pound);  non-users,  .5  kilogramme  (i  1-4 
pounds),  an  increase  of  25  per  cent,  greater 
for  non-users.  Of  the  entire  class  70  per 
cent,  did  not  use  tobacco.  The  prominent 
athletes,  with  one  exception,  did  not  use  to- 
bacco, and  all  candidates  for  the  boat  crew 
abstained  from  its  use. — Dr.  Jay  W.  Seaver 


47 

physician  and  instructor  in  athletics  at 
Yale  University,  in  the  Sa/iifnriau  New 
York,  September,  1891. 

Doctor  Seaver  also  reported  to  the  Na- 
tioiial  Popular  Rcviczv,  San  Diego,  Califor- 
nia, January,  1893,  ^he  comparative  condi- 
tion of  yy  non-users  of  tobacco,  22  irregular 
users,  and  70  habitual  users  at  Yale  Univer- 
sity, viz: 

In  weight  the  non-users  increased  10.4 
per  cent,  more  than  the  regular  users,  and 
6.6  per  cent,  more  than  the  occasional 
users.  In  height,  the  non-users  increased 
24  per  cent,  more  than  the  regular  users, 
and  14  per  cent,  more  than  the  occasional 
users.  In  chest-girth  the  non-user  had  an 
advantage  over  the  regular  user  of  26.7  per 
cent.^'and  over  the  occasional  user  of  22  per 
cent.  In  lung  capacity  the  growth  was  in 
favor  of  the  non-user  77.5  percent,  when 
compared  with  the  regular  user,  and  49.5 
per  cent,  compared  with  the  irregular  user. 

Similar  pernicious  effects  of  tobacco  have 
been  noted  by  Dr.  Hitchcock  among  the 
students  at  Amherst  College  {^American  Med- 
icine 13  September,  1902,  by  Dr.  Lewin  in 
the  Jotirnal  of  Comparative  Neurology,  and 
by  man}^  other  physicians  and  educators, 
including  those  of  Defiance  (Ohio)  College, 
whose  tobacco-using  students  also  could  not 
make  good  grades  in  their  studies. 


48 

Aside  from  alcoholic  beverages,  tobacco 
is  the  most  commonly  used  poisonous  sub- 
stance/ One  of  its  active  parts,  Nicotin, 
has  long  been  known  as  one  of  the  most 
deadly  poisons.  Adler  and  Hensel  have, 
by  injecting  solutions  of  Nicotin,  seen 
arterial  degeneration  produced  in  rabbits. 
— Editorial  in  The  Jour,  of  the  Am.  Med. 
Assn.  13  October,  1906,  based  on  an  article 
in  the  Journal  of  Medical  Research  of  1906. 

Doctor  Kellogg  very  appropriately  and 
forcefully  contends  that  the  use  of  tobacco 
is  the  fundamental  vice  cff  the  habit  of 
drinking  alcoholic  beverages;  the  tobacco 
exciting  a  craving  for  strong  drink.  From 
the  year  1879  he  has  refused  to  undertake 
the  care  of  any  case  of  alcoholic  inebriety 
without  full  understanding,  and  consent  of 
the  patient,  for  the  quitting  of  tobacco  also. 
— Modern  Medicine  June,  1899. 

All  persons  who  are  thinking  that  they 
get  tobacco  that  satisfies  the  habit's  crav- 
ing, and  which  contains  no  nicotin,  are 
referred  to  the  experiences  of  the  Austrian 
Government  which,  having  monopoly  of  the 
tobacco  trade,  began  to  sell  its  subjects 
tobacco  with  the  nicotin  removed.  The 
people  addicted  to  full  tobacco  at  once 
recognized  the  loss  of  the  desired  active 
part,  and  refused  to  purchase  the  weakened 
weed. — Vienna  Letter  in  The  Jour,  of  the 
Am.  Med.  Assn.  16  March,  1907. 


49 


VIII 

Tobacco  Begets   Indolence,    and  Indif- 
ference TO  Propriety,  and  to 
Well -Being. 

Observers  of  the  evils  of  tobacco-using 
in  general  are  not  agreed  upon  the  form  of 
use  that  is  the  most  injurious,  or  the  most 
disgusting.  Nor  are  tobacco-users  agreed 
among  themselves  on  these  questions. 
Every  user  having  a  favorite  form  of  use, 
contends  that  it  is  the  least  harmful  of  all 
other  forms.  The  tendency  with  users  of 
the  weed,  however,  is  to  become  so  deeply 
sunken  in  the  vice  as  to  desire  tobacco  in 
different  forms.  It  is  a  truism  that  the  per- 
son who  uses  the  least  in  quantity  suffers 
the  least  from  the  poison  regardless  of  the 
form  or  way  in  which  it  is  used. 
I  Cigarets  are  thought  by  many  users  of  to- 
bacco to  be  more  injurious  than  other  ways 
of  smoking  because  of  the  habit  of  deeper 
(?)  inhalation  of  the  smoke  of  cigarets 
which,  some  think,  possesses  relatively  more 
of  the  noxious  ingredients  of  tobacco/  But 
many  smokers  of  cigars,  and  pipes,  also  in- 
hale the  smoke,   and  get  even  more  of  the 


50 

poison  into  the  system,  relative!}',  than  do 
cigaret  smokers.  Possibly  some  'manufac- 
turers' add  other  noxious  ingredients  to  the 
tobacco  as  has  been  charged  against  them. 
Analysis  of  some  cigaret  papers  have  shown 
them  clear  of  such  treatment;  but  there  are 
many  kinds  of  papers,  and  of  tobaccos,  not 
reported  upon. 

Cigarets  may  be  used  in  greater  number, 
and  by  younger  bo3^s,  than  cigars  or  pipes 
and,  other  things  being  equal,  the  3'ounger 
the  age  the  greater  the  evil  effect  from  the 
same  quantity  of  tobacco  of  the  same 
strength. 

In  an  article  on  poisoning  of  the  blood  by 
the  use  of  tobacco  (Tobacco  Toxemia)  by 
Dr.  R.  V.  Dolby  of  Vancouver,  British 
Columbia,  printed  in  the  journal  Northwest 
Medicine,  Seattle,  Washington,  October, 
1909,  he  writes  in  part,  that:  Chewing  is 
without  doubt  the  most  pernicious  form  in 
which  to  employ  tobacco.  The  pipe  and 
cigar,  far  from  being  the  safest  medium  for 
the  indulgence  of  tobacco,  are  the  most  dan- 
gerous. Tobacco  amblyopia,  cardiac  syn- 
cope, angina,  loss  of  memory,  tardy  and 
delayed  cerebration,  are  found  chiefly  in 
heavy  cigar  and  pipe  smokers.  Even  can- 
cer of  the  lips  or  tongue  seems  to  be  the 
special  heritage  of  the  pipe  or  cigar  smoker. 
The  cigaret  is  responsible  for  the  cardiac 


51 

irritability,  largely  in  neurotic  people,  also 
responsible  for  irritable  laryngitis  and  phar- 
yngitis.    .     .     . 

y^The  tobacco  habit  not  only  enslaves  the 
will,  but  it  often  perverts  the  mind  and  ac- 
tions of  its  victim.  When  called  to  account 
for  their  continued  adherence  to  the  unde- 
sirable habit,  men  either  change  the  subject 
of  conversation,  or  begin  to  talk  about  'use 
and  abuse  of  the  weed'  as  though  there 
could  be  the  least  use  of  tobacco  without 
abuse  of  the  system,  which  is  impossible.  It 
is  also  impossible  for  the  user  of  tobacco  not 
to  use  it  to  'excess.  ^^/ 

'^It  has  been  estimated  that  there  is  more 
money  expended  in  the  United  States  each 
year  for  tobacco  and  alcoholic  beverages 
than  for  bread  and  education  combined./ 
The  taxes  of  the  General  Government  (Inter- 
nal Revenue  Receipts;  for  1908  are  reported 
as  being  $49,862,754.00  on  tobacco,  and 
$140,158,807.00  on  spirits.  To  these  very 
large  amounts  should  be  added  hundreds  of 
millions  received  by  the  tobacco  and  grain 
growers  and  the  manufacturers.  The  pecun- 
iary cost  of  these  habits,  however,  is  small 
compared  with  their  vicious,  demoralizing, 
weakening  and  degenerating  effects  now,  and 
their  entailing  effects  of  misery  upon  future 
generations.  No  one  can  afford  such  habits 
in  any  true  sense. 


52 


Americans  are  not  nervous  in  imagination 
only,  as  has  recently  been  promulgated  in  a 
book  which  has  been  noticed  broad-cast  in 
newspapers.  Talk  with  the  tobacco-users  in 
their  moods  of  honesty  with  themselves  and 
with  you,  and  they  will  tell  you  the  fault  is 
with  tobacco,  and  with  the  alcohol  if  they 
have  this  habit  also.  Physicians,  non-users 
of  tobacco,  could  tell  the  same  regarding  the 
cause  of  men's  nervousness,  and  of  their 
necessarily  shortened  lives  by  these  habits; 
of  the  cause  of  the  'break-downs' ;  the  heat- 
stroke deaths;  'brain-storm'  murders,  and 
suicides;  also  of  the  cause  of  deaths  from 
'accidents'  attributed  by  reporters  to  'de- 
fects in  the  steering  apparatus  of  the  auto- 
mobile, the  horse  becoming  unmanageable' 
and  many  other  subterfuges. 

Most  of  the  fires,  as  well  as  a  large  per- 
centage of  the  death-rate  arise  from  the 
direct  and  cumulative  results  of  tobacco, 
alcohol,  or  both  combined. 

Associated  Press  Dispatches  from  Johns- 
town, Pa.,  II  September,  1909,  mention 
death,  and  serious  injuries,  from  explosion 
of  a  keg  of  powder  by  a  spark  from  a  ci- 
garet  being  smoked  over  the  open  keg;  and 
near  Key  West,  Florida,  was  reported  28 
August,  1909,  the  death  of  twelvp  men  and 
serious  injury  of  five  others  by  the  explosion 
of  seven  hundred  pounds  of  dynamite  from 


53 

a  lighted  cigaret  thrown  into  a  box  of 
fuses.  Such  is  the  thoughtless,  indolent, 
often  careless,  indifference  to  propriety,  even 
to  well-being,  begotten  by  tobacco  using! 

The  ever-ready  matches  are  also  scattered 
so  that  children  get  them — and  numerous 
children  have  been  thus  burned  to  death, 
others  maimed  for  life,  and  much  valuable 
property  destroyed,  by  the  fires  they  have 
caused.  Could  all  the  facts  be  gathered 
from  every  community  regarding  deaths, 
maimings  and  misery  from  these  allied 
causes,  the  list  would  be  appalling. 

Newspapers  seldom  report  the  true  cause 
of  death  in  any  community,  from  regard  for 
.the  feelings  of  surviving  friends.  Such  is 
also  the  case  with  physicians'  reports  and 
certificates  throughout  most  of  the  long  Hst. 
The  true  cause  of  death  is  evaded  when  pos- 
sible, and  the  report  is  made  to  read:  acci- 
dental, from  violence,  despondency  from 
poor  health,  chronic  inflammation  andchange 
in  one  or  another  of  the  vital  organs,  etc., 
etc.,  without  naming  the  exciting  cause. 

These  enormities  have  been  so  frequent  in 
every  city  and  township  that  the  people  soon 
forget  those  that  have  occurred  in  their  lo- 
cality, and  read  with  little  concern  about 
the  similar  catastrophes  coming  to  their 
notice  from  other  places. 

Tobacco  has  never  been  charged  with  its 


54 

proper  share  in  the  causation  of  the  sad 
property  losses,  diseases,  sufferings,  and 
deaths  mentioned  on  the  preceding  pages. 

Modern  science  is  just  beginning  to  show 
the  iniquities  of  the  use  of  alcohoHc  bever- 
ages. It  is,  however,  as  yet  deahng  only 
with  bodily  or  physical  phases  of  the  great 
evil.  Tobacco-using  should  be  combatted 
as  a  close  companion  evil,  not  only  in  a 
physical  sense  but  as  a  mental,  psycholog- 
ical, and  moral  evil. 

Every  observing  person  can  point  to  num- 
erous evil  effects  of  tobacco  and  alcohol  in 
every  community,  both  of  recent  and  of  he- 
reditary origin.  Many  physicians  for  many 
years  have  been  sounding  notes  of  warning, 
and  they  are  now  taking  more  advanced  and 
practical  measures  in  all  civilized  countries 
for  the  suppression  of  these  evil  habits,  and 
for  lessening  the  increase  of  physically  and 
mentally  defective  children.  Even  the 
English  Press  has  therefrom  had  occasional 
spasms  of  'regretting  that  the  British  race 
is  deteriorating.' — See  abstracts  in  The 
Literary  Digest  of  24  July,  1909. 


55 


IX 

Tobacco  Causes  Organic  Degenerations, 
AND  THE  Transmission  of  Degen- 
eracy. 

To  the  medical  profession  the  credit  is 
due  for  the  degree  of  hygiene  and  sanitation 
-  that  prevails,  as  well  as  for  the  pure  food 
and  drug  law,  and  for  other  improved  modes 
of  living.  But  the  medical  profession  should 
have  more  power  from  the  governments. 
The  American  Medical  Association  has  been 
laboring  for  a  generation,  and  longer,  for  a 
National  Department  of  Public  Health, 
with  a-free-from-political-bias  physician  as 
a  Cabinet  Officer  at  its  head.  Progress  has 
been  made  toward  this  desirable  result. 
/  There  has  been,  and  yet  is,  a  sorry  need  for 
uniform  human-hygiene  and  other  far-reach- 
ing health  laws,  and  for  their  uniform  en- 
forcement throughout  the  Nation.  The 
Congress  has  expended  millions  of  dollars  for 
the  improvement  of  the  'blood'  and  the 
health  of  the  farmers'  live-stock  (which  was 
proper)  but  scarcely  a  dollar  has  it  expended 
for  the  improvement  of  the  blood  or  health 


56 


of  the  people,  other  than  for  quarantine  and 
the  marine  hospital  service,  ostensibly  in 
the  interest  of  commerce./ 

Not  until  the  United  States  has  a  De- 
partment of  Public  Health  with  the  dignit}^ 
of  a  Governmental  Department,  and  there  is 
a  uniform  system  of  health  laws  throughout 
the  States,  will  there  be  a  fully  equipped 
rallying  center  for  the  Christian  Good  Sense 
of  the  Nation  in  the  support  of  all  wise 
measures  best  calculated  to  ameliorate  the 
evils  and  defects  that  now  exist,  and  to  in- 
troduce and  carry  forward  measures  for  the 
proper  endowment,  physically  and  mentally, 
of  future  generations. 

Everyone  can,  and  should,  help  in  this 
most  worthy  eiFfort;  in  talking  ab'out  it  and 
begetting  favorable  interest  in  the  commun- 
it}^  that  will  help  to  secure  nominations,  and 
elections,  only  of  men  of  correct  habits  who 
will,  in  State  Legislature,  and  in  the  Con- 
gress, subserve  the  best. interest  of  the  peo- 
ple in  these  most  important  reforms,  as  well 
as  in  other  ways. 

Anj^  habit,  or  act,  of  a  parent  that  pro- 
duces much  of  even  functional  disturbance 
has  bad  effect  upon  the  children  begotten 
by  such  parent.  The  deep  defects  produced 
by  tobacco  on  the  generative  system,  men- 
tioned on  preceding  pages,  perniciously  af- 
fect the  germ  plasm,   and  germ  cells,   and 


57 

cannot  but  show  blight,  more  or  less,  in  the 
children  that  may  be  born  of  a  parent 
addicted  to  this  vice. 

Tobacco,  in  some  ways  even  more  than 
the  alcoholic-beverage  habit,  touches  force- 
fully the  nerve  centers;  the  medulla  ob- 
longata, the  spinal  center,  the  generative 
center,  and  the  great  sympathetic  nerve 
centers,  leaving  therein  its  trail  of  debility, 
defects,  and  degeneration,  all  of  which  af- 
fections are  in  line  of  transmission  to  pos- 
terity. 
^.-^^any  children  not  showing  pronounced 
effects  of  degeneration  in  early  life,  will 
exhibit  great  defects  in  later  years,  from 
want  of  physical  or  mental  strength  to  with- 
stand the  duties  of  life.  A  careful  obser- 
ver can  discern  many  such  cases,  in  many 
variations  of  defects,  in  every  community. 
Some  of  the  defects  or  perversions  may 
have  alcoholism  as  well  as  nicotinism  as 
a  contributing  factor;  and  some  may  be 
traced  to  result  from  one  or  more  grand- 
parents in  different  generations;  but  most 
of  them  are  due  to  cumulative  evils. 

As  the  generations  have  come  and  gone, 
the  number  of  perverted  or  otherwise  de- 
generate children  have  increased;  and  with 
the  impetus  the  cause  has  obtained,  they 
will  continue  to  increase  for  some  length  of 
time,    even    after  the  tobacco  and  alcohol 


58 


habits  are  suppressed,   and  a  thorough  sys- 
tem of  'breeding  up'  be  inaugurated. 

Eugenics  is  a  new  science  in  human  race 
improvement  that  is  as  yet  not  fully  devel- 
oped, even  in  theory.  Too  many  of  its  ad- 
vocates are  addicted  to  tobaccoism  at  least, 
and  yet  take  too  narrow  a  view  of  the  re- 
quirements of  the  science.  However,  some 
investigators  along  this  line  are  doing  good 
work  so  far  as  they  can  with  their  present 
serious  handicaps.  In  this  connection  see 
the  July,  1909,  number  of  The  Annals  of 
the  A  inerican  A  cadeiny  of  Political  and  So- 
cial Science  Number  i  of  Volume  XXXIV, 
all  of  the  171  pages  of  which  are  given  to 
the  discussion  of  Race  Improvement  in  the 
United  States.  Also  see  late  discussions, 
and  enactment,  of  the  Indiana  Legislature. 

The  prevention  of  improper  marriages  or, 
more  properly  and  far  reaching,  the  preven- 
tion by  surgical  operations  of  propagation 
of  children  by  the  diseased,  by  criminals,  by 
those  mentally  unfit,  and  all  manner  of  de- 
generates, of  both  sexes,  may  become  a 
necessity  if  the  vices  of  narcotism  and  its 
great  brood  of  evils  are  not  suppressed. 

The  advances  made  by  mankind  in  civili- 
zation have  been  tortuous  and  slow,  mainly 
from  bad  habits.  Nations  and  their  accum- 
ulations have  been  overthrown  by  the 
results,  directly  and  cumulatively,  of  narcot- 


59 

ics,  wrongly  called  stimulants,  such  as  al- 
coholic beverages,  opium,  tobacco,  etc., 
and  their  perverting  effects. 

There  can  be  properly-healthful  manhood, 
and  properly-true  and  sure  progress,  only  as 
mankind  is  fed  on  the  plainest  most  whole- 
some foods,  and  the  purest  water;  and  the 
entire  life,  and  action,  strictly  governed 
along  the  line  of  what  is  for  the  best. 
Poverty,  misery,  crime,  and  all  the  horde  of 
otherevils  now  existing,  can  be  banished  only 
by  giving  children  their  proper  heritage  of 
sound  health,  and  rearing  them  along  this 
reasonable,  most  important,  and  obligatory 
line  of  sanity. 

All  writers,  and  other  workers,  for  the 
welfare  and  betterment  of  mankind  have 
friends,  many  friends  or  relatives,  addicted 
to,  enslaved  by,  degenerating  habits.  And 
many  well-meaning  people  do  not  mention 
or  strongly  combat  these  habits  on  account 
of  these  friends  or  relatives.  This  is  often 
from  a  sentiment  that  cannot  well  be  wholly 
justified.  Do  good,  let  your  light  and  in- 
fluence shine,  and  be  felt,  whatever  'friend,' 
relative  or  enemy  oppose. 

None  but  good,  clear  minds,  honest  and 
brave  hearts  will  well  inaugurate  and  carry 
forward  any  thorough  movement  for  the 
overcoming  of  evil  habits  and  the  better- 
ment of  the  human  race;  and  it  is  incum- 


66 


bent  upon  everyone  to  do  everything  possi- 
ble to  help  forward  this  most  worthy  move- 
ment. 

Everyone  who  flaunts  the  vice  of  tobacco 
or  alcoholic  enslavement  in  public,  is  an 
enemv  to  the  human  race,  in  that  he  there- 
by exerts  a  pernicious  example  to  his  or  his 
neighbors'  children,  which  may  in  turn 
cause  their  enslavement  in  the  same  vice  and 
thus  contribute  to  the  increase  of  degener- 
ates in  the  land. 

/'  It  is  a  duty  that  everyone  owes  to  his 
God,  to  his  family,  to  himself,  community. 
State  and  Nation,  to  be  exemplary  in  his 
habits  and,  so  far  as  possible,  a  worthy 
character  for  the  youth  and  others  to  pat- 
tern after.  The  greatest  responsibility  na- 
turally rests  upon  the  parents;  but  no  one 
has  right  to  exemption  from  the  duty  stated^ 

The  word  reformer  is  one  of  the  best  of 
words;  an^it  has  been  more  manifest  each 
year  that  every  right-minded  man  and  wo- 
man should  work  together,  prudently  and 
forcefully,  for  the  replacing  of  evil  habits  in 
their  community  with  those  habits  best  for 
the  individual,  the  family,  and  for  the  State./ 
With  right-minded  people  it  is  more  evident 
to  day  than  ever  before  that  tobaccoism  is 
second  in  evil  only  to  alcoholism,  and  is 
generally  a  recruiting  stage  for  alcoholism. 

The  two  greatest  things  that  block  the 


6i 


wheels  of  Progress  in  civilization  to  day, 
are  these  enslaving  habits  and  a  debased 
commercialism  founded  upon  them.  Were 
it  not  for  the  economic  feature  of  vice 
shortening  the  lives  of  the  enslaved,  and 
the  work  of  the  few  thoroughly  Christian 
parents  and  reformers — the  salt  of  the 
earth — there  would  be  reversion  even  worse 
than  to  the  dark  ages,  with  little  other  than 
idiots,  weaklings,  criminals,  and  anarchy 
abroad  in  the  land. 

The  Southern  States  have  been  making 
noble  strides  against  the  vice  of  alcoholism. 
The  Northern  States  should  rise  equal  to 
the  occasion  and  carry  the  wave  of  reform 
yet  further,  against  tobaccoism  as  well  as 
alcoholism,  the  twins  in  opposition  to  free- 
dom of  the  will,  and  to  civilization.  No 
one  can  afford  to  oppose  these  efforts  for 
reform. 

/  The  culture  of  tobacco  and  the  distilleries 
of  alcohol  have  been  the  greatest  curses  of 
the  United  States./They  have  been  the 
greatest  detractors  from  proper  agriculture. 
Farms  have  been  sadly  neglected  where 
alcohol  abounded.  /Tobacco  has  not  only 
impoverished  the  soil^but  it  has  bred  night- 
riding,  anarchy  and  death.  The  United 
States  should  be  the  great  food  and  cloth- 
ing (grain,  and  other  foods,  cotton,  flax,  and 
wool)  producers  for  the  nations.     The  agri- 


62 


culturists  are  rising  year  by  3^ear  to  greater 
freedom  from  enslaving  habits.  But  they 
cannot  rise  to  the  full  dignity  of  their  work 
until  fully  free;  and  until  every  acre  of  land 
is  devoted  to  its  best  and  most  honorable 
use. 


X 

Questions  Answered.     The  Corruptors. 

Reformers  Wanted  For  Their 

Suppression. 

Doubtless  many  questions  will  arise  in  the 
minds  of  those  who  have  read  this  little 
book  through  to  this  page.  Most  of  the 
questions  that  have  been  presented  to  the 
writer  at  different  times  about  tobacco,  are 
answered  in  this  section.  Some  of  these 
answers  have  been  embodied  in  preceding 
pages.  In  fact  much  of  this  book  may  be 
said  to  be  line  upon  line,  precept  upon  pre- 
cept,  and  warning  upon  warning. 

There  are  many  noxious,  even  poisonous, 
plants  growing  by  the  roadside,  in  waste 
places,  and  in  fields,  for  which  no  particu- 
lar use  to  mankind  has  been  discovered.  A 
few  of  such  plants  are  of  some  service  to 
mankind  when  discreetly  used.     Not  so  with 


63 


tobacco.  Tobaccoism  or  nicotinism  is 
classed  with  opiumism  or  morphinism,  co- 
cainism,  hashishism,  and  alcohoHsm.  To- 
bacco and  alcohol  possess  not  one  redeeming 
feature  for  use  as  medicine  like  opium, 
cocain,  and  hemp.  Alcohol  has  valid  use 
only  in  the  arts  and  sciences.  -^Tobacco  has 
no  valid  use  whatever^ 

Tobacco  habit  is  not  formed  from  natural 
desire  for  the  pungent  weed.  Some  persons 
have  formed  the  habit  from  unwise  advice 
of  physicians  or  others  addicted  to  it. 
Generally,  however,  the  habit  is  formed  by 
boys  who  are  induced  to  persist  through 
the  sickening  tastings  to  form  the  habit,  by 
the  dares  or  challenges,  taunts  and  gibes  of 
their  already  degraded  associates.  Too  of- 
ten this  pernicious  influence  has  come  from 
men  upon  whom  the  boys  have  looked  as 
exemplars,  but  who  are  degenerates;  also 
from  dealers  in  tobacco  who  desire  pecun- 
iary profit  thereby !  Recently  a  boy  in 
England  three  years  and  nine  months  of 
age,  ill  generally  and  with  a  tobacco  heart, 
was  presented  to  hospital  for  treatment;  and 
it  was  there  learned  that  his  father  had 
trained  him  to  smoke,  and  was  giving  him 
ten  cigarets  a  day,  and  was  gathering  money 
from  those  to  whom  he  was  exhibiting  the  boy 
in  public  in  the  act  of  smoking  them! — The 
Medical    Times,     New    York     City,     1909. 


64 

Surely,  many  people  in  the  palmy  days  of 
old  Greece  were  put  to  death  for  corrupting 
the  young  to  less  degree  than  in  these  in- 
stances. 

Often  the  depravity  and  perversions  of 
the  tobacco  habit  are  asserted  in  most  un- 
reasonable and  untoward  ways.  The  victim 
being  so  strongly  enslaved  that  the  will 
power  cannot  reinstate  itself,  every  shadow 
of  fallacy  is  seized  at  in  an  effort  to  excuse, 
even  to  warrant,  continuance  of  the  vice. 
Assertion  is  made  that  tobacco  preserves  the 
teeth,  which  is  not  true.  Also  that  it  aids 
digestion;  the  fallacy  of  which  statement 
has  been  shown  over  and  over  on  preceding 
pages  of  this  book.  An  impure  breath  is 
combined  with  a  worse  odor  by  tobaccoism. 
There  can  be  nothing  worse  than  tobacco 
reek. 

Tobacco  conduces  to  unhealthy  flesh  in 
both  the  lean  and  the  overfleshy.  If  any 
change  in  weight  occurs,  it  is  likely  to  be 
from  fatty  degeneration,  or  a  wasting  from 
indigestion  and  malassimilation,  from  the 
tobacco. 

The  physicians  and  clergymen  who  are 
tobacco  inebriates,  contracted  the  habit 
with  their  fellow  boys,  or  in  another  unto- 
ward state,  and  are,  like  others,  so  enslaved 
that  they  cannot  readily  quit  the  vice. 
They  should  be  the  first  to  keep  their  shame- 


65 

ful  indulji^ence  out  of  sight ;  and  should  wholly 
quit  the  habit  as  soon  as  possible.  If  their 
volition  is  so  far  deteriorated  that  they  can- 
not reform  within  themselves,  they  should 
abide  in  a  sanatorium  until  their  will  power 
and  general  strength  for  abstaining  from 
the  vice  are  fully  restored. 

The  fact  that  an  occasional  user  of  to- 
bacco lives  to  old  age,  is  but  a  rare  excep- 
tion to  the  rule  that  tobacco  produces  dis- 
ease and  greatly  shortens  life.  The  human 
system  shows  remarkable  powers  of  tolera- 
tion, accommodating  itself  to  the  many 
serious  impositions  upon  it.  Were  it  not 
for  the  extra  strong  eliminating,  and  accom- 
modatingly elastic  powers  possessed  by  some 
people,  there  would  be  more  shortened  lives, 
even  of  early  and  sudden  deaths,  from  to- 
bacco, alcoholic  beverages,  and  overeating, 
than  there  are  at  present,  as  numerous  as 
such  deaths  now  are. 

When  a  man  tells  of  the  composure  of 
his  nerves  and  mind  by  tobacco,  it  is  but 
the  confession  of  his  enslavement  b}^  the 
habit.  The  cravings  for  tobacco  are  but  the 
appeals  of  the  habit  for  forging  yet  stronger 
the  chains  of  its  victim's  enslavement.  One 
so  enslaved  cannot  think,  or  work,  naturally 
well  when  using  and  under  the  influence  of 
tobacco,  and  much  less  can  he  think  or 
work  well  without  it;  hence  the  habit  is  a 


66 


great  impairer  of  natural  thinking  and  work- 
ing ability.  Because  some  men  of  great 
natural  ability  have  done  some  good  work 
when  addicted  to  the  vice,  it  is  not  at  all  to 
the  credit  of  tobacco;  they  could  have  done 
far  better  without  it. 

Insistence  upon  total  abstinence  from  al- 
coholic beverages,  tobacco,  and  all  other 
narcotics,  is  not  antagonistic  to  personal 
liberty  in  any  reasonable  sense;  but  it  forms 
the  best  assurance  for  personal  liberty  in 
every  true  sense.  Alcoholic  and  tobacco 
inebriety  are  the  worst  kind  of  slavery.  No 
one  can  have  moral,  legal  or  personal  lib- 
erty with  either.  Even  'moderate'  use  of 
tobacco  or  alcoholic  beverage  of  any  kind 
is  as  unsafe  to  personal  liberty  as  it  is  dan- 
gerous to  health,  and  the  formation  of  a 
wholly  uncontrollable  habit  that  will  ruin 
both  body  and  soul. 

C  It  is  the  duty  of  the  State  to  outlaw  every- 
thing inimical  to  the  welfare  of  its  citizens. 
Hence  it  is  that  every  grade  of  court  has 
decided  that  the  traffic  in  spirituous  liquors 
is  illegal;  and  so  it  should  be  with  tobacco, 
the  only  dangerous  narcotic  that  is  at  pres- 
ent not  under  proscription  of  a  just  and 
rigorous  law. 

It  is  a  wholesome  sentiment,  that  it  is  the 
duty  of  parents,  and  of  States,  to  see  strictly 
to    the    matter,     that    the     children,     and 


67 

adults,  are  not  blighted  in  body  or  mind  by 
any  narcotic,  or  other  cause,  as  only  such  can 
make  proper  citizens^ 
Alankind  needs  neither  the  vice  of  tobac- 
co using,  alcoholic  beverage  using,  nor  any 
other  vice,  to  do  his  or  her  best  work.  In 
fact,  one's  bodily,  business,  and  mental  troub- 
les multiply,  and  their  friction  increases, 
from  such  habits^  To  be  temporarily  'sooth- 
ed' (have  the  sensibilities  blunted)  by  such 
habit,  is  but  to  blunt,  obscure  or  pervert 
thoughts  and  realizations  of  duty.  (In  this 
connection,  see  Dr.  James  L.  Tracy's  paper 
on  The  Psychology  of  the  Tobacco  Habit  in 
the  journal  American  Medicine ^  New  York 
City,  July,   1909)- 

The  statement  has  been  made  occassion- 
ally,  and  often  implied,  that  it  is  necessary 
for  the  young  to  *sow  wild  oats'  and  neces- 
sary for  mankind  to  have  tobacco  or  alcohol 
habit,  or  some  other  vice.  This  is  the 
most  fallacious  and  pernicious  of  assertions, 
and  could  emanate  only  from  an  evil  mind. 
Because  people  with  these  habits  are  per- 
verted in  mind,  it  is  a  most  outrageous  work 
for  them  to  proclaim  that  others  are,  or 
should  be,  like  themselves.  Such  enslaved, 
perverted  wills,  and  minds,  are  dangerous 
factors  to  be  abroad  in  the  land.  Mental 
and  moral  obliquity  go  hand  in  hand.  When 
the  body  and  mind,   the  physical  and  the 


68 


psychical,  are  perverted,  an}-  other  evil  is 
likely  to  be  near  at  hand;  and  the  converse 
is  also  true. 

The  personal  habits,  of  body  and  mind,  of 
everyone  seeking  patronage,  or  employment 
should  be  carefully  and  thoroughly  investi- 
gated. Such  investigation  should  be  even 
more  thoroughly  made  regarding  those  seek- 
ing public  office.  It  can  readily  be  under- 
stood by  thoughtful,  observing  persons,  that 
anyone  handicapped  with  enslaving,  per- 
verting habits  cannot  retain  the  full  measure 
of  a  trustworthy  man.  All  public  servants, 
and  distinctively  mental  and  moral  teachers, 
should  possess  full}^  rounded  characters  free 
from  all  vicious  habits,  and  possess  influences 
that  tend  only  for  the  betterment  of  their 
community  and  commonwealth  in  all  ways, 

Total  abstinence  people  in  every  com- 
munity should  club  together  and  work  pru- 
dently, and  forcefully  for  all  of  the  rights  of 
those  who  desire  to  live  clean  and  worthy 
lives. 

That  many  tobacco  users  often  have  such 
worthy  feelings  and  desires,  is  without  ques- 
tion. The  ph3^sical  sufferings  wrought  by 
tobacco  are  not  so  keen  as  are  the  frequent 
dissatisfied,  even  disgusted,  condition  of  the 
minds  of  yet  sensible  and  would  be  respect- 
able men,  who  chafe  under  the  fact  that 
they    are    enslaved   by   such  filthy,  vicious 


69 


habit.  However,  too  many,  alas,  lose  all 
will  power  even  to  make  manly  effort  to 
quit  the  vice,  and  lose,  or  ignore,  their  self- 
respect  also;  even  assume  the  vicious  role  of 
bravado,  in  effort  to  appear  wholly  regard- 
less of  their  own  welfare,  and  of  the  rights 
of  those  so  unfortunate  as  to  be  afflicted 
with  their  presence.* 

No  one  has  any  right  to  flaunt  his  depra- 
vity and  his  depraving  habit  in  public.  No 
one  has  a  right  to  circulate  on  a  street  or 
elsewhere  in  public  reeking  with  tobacco, 
much  less  puffing  its  smoke  in  the  faces  of 
others.  Such  bravados  are  becoming  intol- 
erabl}'  numerous.  In  business  places,  public 
offices,  even  in  postofifices,  courthouses, 
hotels  everywhere,  and  restaurants,  where 
free  women  and  free  men  are  obliged  tt)  go, 
it  has  become  necessary  to  pass  through  an 
atmosphere  vitiated  by  tobacco  breaths  and 
tobacco  sputa! 

These  are  public  outrages  upon  civiliza- 
tion that  self-and-rights-of-others  respecting 
men  and  woman  should  not  longer  continue 
to  endure  meekly,  as  they  have  done  in  the 
past.  The  right  of  everyone  to  pure  air, 
unadulterated  by  tobacco  or  other  deleteri- 
ous odors,  should  be  insisted  upon  by  all 
clean  people,  forcefully  if  necessary. 

*See  Report  on  National  Vitality^  Its  Wastes  and 
Conservatism,  b}^  Professor  Irving  Fisher,  1909. 


70 

From  the  foregoing,  and  from  the  candid 
thought  by  every  one,  can  there  be  any 
question  about  the  extreme  sinfulness  of 
tobacco  using,  and  other  narcotic  habit, — 
of  their  extreme  sinfulness  against  self, 
against  the  community,  against  future  gen- 
erations, and  against  The  Creator? 

Reduced  to  the  ultimatum,  tobacco  is 
worthy  of  no  less  an  anathema  or  curse  than 
Shakespeare  applied  to  the  influence  of  al- 
coholic beverages:  If  thou  hast  no  other 
name  I  will  call  thee  Devil !  Also,  of  the 
terrible  arraignment  of  its  companion  evil 
by  Reverend  Robert  Burton  (born  A.  D. 
1577,  died  1640)  who  wrote  of  tobacco  in 
162 1,  that:  *Tis  a  plague,  a  mischief,  a 
violent  purger  of  goods,  lands  and  health; 
hellish,  devilish,  and  damned  Tobacco;  the 
ruin  and  overthrow  of  body  and  soul ! 


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■f  Liforsiry 

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"■■w    \  ^  104^1 

APR  18  1950 

jUi  1 1 1959 

JUL  2  8  1353 

29Jl'59KL 

LD  21-J00m-7,'40 (6936s) 

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